Mohammed Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt, began rebuilding the city around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria had returned to something akin to its former glory. The Serapeum of the Great Library was destroyed, possibly effecting the final destruction of the Library of Alexandria. Unexpected discoveries from the inhabited quarter include frescoes and other wall decorations that provide clear evidence for the development of Coptic artistic forms in a cosmopolitan urban setting—not just in the chora of Middle and Upper Egypt. General & Rehabilitative Health Care. Walter Scheidel, "Creating a Metropolis: A Comparative Demographic Perspective"; in Harris & Ruffini (2004), p. 2. One of the more sober descriptions, given by the historian Arrian, tells how Alexander undertook to lay out the city's general plan, but lacking chalk or other means, resorted to sketching it out with grain. 17–18. Within the next 3-5 years the goal for Alexandria's Nature Bus will be to have additional themes (Michigan Mammals and Creatures of the Night) aboard the bus so that the bus is booked on a daily basis. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion. The Foundation of Alexandria Historia Alexandri Magni: Book 7.1 - 8.4 Alexander: Books XXVI - XXVIII Plutarch Quintus Curtius Rufus Traveled to the shrine of Ammon first, linked himself to Jupiter Alexandria was positioned between a lake and the sea Left men to supervise the E. M. Forster, who worked in Alexandria for the International Red Cross during World War I, wrote two books about the city and promoted Cavafy's work. The Ptolemies fostered the development of the Library of Alexandria and associated Musaeum into a renowned center for Hellenistic learning. "Nevertheless, throughout most of the period of the Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517), the city of Alexandria was a busy entrepôt for trade between Egypt and Europe. Recent archaeology at Kom El Deka (heap of rubble or ballast) has found the Roman quarter of Alexandria beneath a layer of graves from the Muslim era. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile Valley. Alexandria Education Foundation awarded grant to support school meals for students in need October 13, 2020; Virtual Celebration of Hall of Fame Inductees from the past 13 years September 22, 2020; Alexandria Education Foundation Postpones Hall of Fame Event August 20, 2020 Ancient accounts are extremely numerous and varied, and much influenced by subsequent developments. Chartered in 1998, the Alexandria Library Foundation, Inc. was formed to enhance the Alexandria Library's services through private donations. After a long decline, Alexandria emerged as major metropolis at the time of the Crusades and lived a flourishing period due to trade with agreements with the Aragonese, Genoese and Venetians who distributed the products arrived from the East through the Red Sea. In 215 AD the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms[citation needed]. Christine Favard-Meeks & Dimitri Meeks, "The heir of the Delta"; in Jacob & de Polignac (1992/2000); pp. There has been a persistent belief that the Library of Alexandria and its contents were destroyed in 642 during the Arab invasion.[19][18]. Alexandria was an oddity, a kind of cultural non sequitur—a Greek city run by Greeks, set in an alien cultural landscape with which it had little in common. The city fell to the Arabs in AD 641, and a new capital of Egypt, Fustat, was founded on the Nile. The Canopic (westernmost) branch of the Nile Delta still existed at that time, and was widely used for shipping. In 645 a Byzantine fleet recaptured the city, but it fell for good the following year. The ancient sources tell us that Alexander himself chose the sites of the temples; this applied to the Greek temples and also the Egyptian, in that he selected the place where a temple to Isis was to be conslrucled. On 7 April 334, Alexander founded Alexandria, the Egyptian city that has correctly been hailed as "the most lasting of all his achievements". According to the translator, Elizabeth Hazelton Haight, the Life was written around c. AD 300 although… You won’t find a new country, won’t find another shore. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt for the East and never returned to his city. The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar. Just east of Alexandria in ancient times (where now is Abu Qir Bay) there was marshland and several islands. 32–42. A great assortment of countries had agents in the city, although the European trade was dominated by merchants from the city-states of northern Italy, principally Venetians, Genoese, Florentines, and Pisans. there’s no ship for you, there’s no road. [21] In the year 828, the alleged body of Mark the Evangelist was stolen by Venetian merchants, which led to the Basilica of Saint Mark. Nothing, however, could better signify this change than the placing of Alexandria's tomb within the city. According to archaeologist Mostafa Waziri, the skeletons looked like a family burial with a middle-aged woman and two men. 3 Mummies (and No Curses) (Published 2018)", "Scientists Begin Unveiling the Secrets of the Mummies in the Alexandria 'Dark Sarcophagus, "That Massive Black Sarcophagus Contained 3 Inscriptions. Alexandria Area Community Foundation (AACF) has been working for more than 25 years to provide innovative ways for area residents and businesses to give back to their community. [18][19] The neoplatonist philosopher Hypatia was publicly murdered by a Christian mob. Among other things, we do not know how many people were initially settled at the site; how their numbers changed over time; where successive generations of immigrants came from; and what the maximum size of the population was, or when it was reached. The city grew in the early 19th century under the industrialization program of Mohammad Ali, the viceroy of Egypt. Their support has been crucial in getting the foundation off to … [26.9] The king was delighted with the plan, when suddenly a vast multitude of birds of every kind and size flew from the river and the lagoon on to the site like clouds; nothing was left of the barley-meal and even Alexander was much troubled by the omen. In 365, a tsunami caused by an earthquake in Crete hit Alexandria.[16][17]. )[10] Alexandrian Greeks placed an emphasis on Hellenistic culture, in part to exclude and subjugate non-Greeks. 1978. In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria. On being offered a viewing into the tombs of the pharaohs, he refused, saying, "I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses."[14]. [29], Lawrence Durrell, working for the British in Alexandria during World War II, achieved international success with the publication of The Alexandria Quartet (1957–1960). After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. What it looked like, its exact location, precisely how many books it held, if it burnt, and who destroyed it. From the time of annexation and onwards, Alexandria seemed to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. In 2000, with the opening of the Charles E. Beatley, Jr. Central Library, the Library asked the City to add $50,000 to its operating budg… She had a voracious appetite for knowledge and … Slavery, a normal institution in Greece, was likely present but details about its extent and about the identity of slaves are unknown. French troops stormed the city on July 2, 1798 and it remained in their hands until the British victory at the Battle of Alexandria on March 21, 1801, following which the British besieged the city which fell to them on 2 September 1801. Det förmodas att det grundlades omkring 280 f.Kr. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC (the exact date is disputed) as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Aleksándreia). Sign In or Create Account to view assets data lock Unlock financial insights by subscribing to our monthly plan. (1992/2000). While in Alexandria, Octavian took time to visit Alexander's tomb and inspected the late king's remains. [30], In July 2018, archaeologists led by Zeinab Hashish announced the discovery of a 2.000-year-old 30-ton black granite sarcophagus. Headquarters. "This quarter is especially noteworthy as it provides our first archaeological window onto urban life in late antique Alexandria. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt and never returned to the city during his life. These clashes culminated in the Egyptian coup of 1952, during which the army occupied Alexandria and drove King Farouk from his residence at Montaza Palace.[27]. The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but only after it had been under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. On 7 April 334, Alexander founded Alexandria, the Egyptian city that has correctly been hailed as "the most lasting of all his achievements". Notably, there were few references to Egypt or native Egyptians in Alexandrian poetry; one of the few references to native Egyptians presents them as "muggers. Walter Scheidel, "Creating a Metropolis: A Comparative Demographic Perspective"; in Harris & Ruffini (2004), p. 25. There was also the town of Menouthis. Taking a hard look at the facts about the Library of Alexandria, there is much we do not know. Denna artikel handlar om det antika biblioteket. [12] There were two institutions in Alexandria devoted to the preservation and study of Greek culture, which helped to exclude non-Greeks. Foundation. 1,100 pages of text and notes cannot change the fact that 'the development of Alexandria as a city largely escapes us'. Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued. The Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Torah and other writings), was produced there. This page was created in 2002; last modified on 14 July 2020. In contrast to their later prominence, there is no good sign of a sizeable Jewish community in the third century BCE.". Here's What They Mean", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Alexandria&oldid=999981984, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles needing additional references from December 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. His example was followed by Mark Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian. [26.3] If what the Alexandrians say on the authority of Heracleides is true, then it seems that Homer was no idle or useless companion to him on his expedition. Subscribe Unlock nonprofit financial insights that will help you make more informed decisions. Workshops and street-front stores as well as private dwellings complement the depictions in literary sources of the city's varied commercial and social life. Jacob, Christian, & François de Polignac, eds. Alexandria, major city and urban governorate in Egypt. Nor do we know whether it was the food supply, demographic conditions, or other variables that mediated the city's growth, or how its development affected the urban system of Egypt as a whole.". [4] The site also offered unique protection against invading armies: the vast Libyan Desert to the west and the Nile Delta to the east. You’ll walk the same streets, grow old The most valued items in this trade were luxury goods from the East reexported from Egypt, such as Indian spices, Chinese porcelains, and Persian Gulf pearls. Years later, the city suffered many earthquakes during the years 956, 1303 and then in 1323. Only a few months later, Alexandria's Manshia Square was the site of the famous, failed assassination attempt on the life of Gamal Abdel Nasser. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In literature, non-Greek texts entered the library only once they had been translated into Greek. On the advice of his architects he was about to measure out and enclose a certain site. The dynasty and capital, built upon such a prestigious relic, could, more than any other, claim to hold up and preserve the universal vision that attached to a royalty inherited from the deceased. Individual grants will be awarded at the discretion of Historic Alexandria Foundation, which administers the Fund, based on the nature, purpose, and merits of the project proposal. Alexandria Education Foundation awarded grant to support school meals for students in need October 13, 2020; Virtual Celebration of Hall of Fame Inductees from the past 13 years September 22, 2020; Alexandria Education Foundation Postpones Hall of Fame Event August 20, 2020 Alexandria was divided into five quarters, bearing the first five letters of the Greek Alphabet. [23] However, it declined still further under the Ottoman Empire, losing its water supply from the Nile, and its commercial importance, as Rosetta (Rashid) became more useful as a port.[24]. För den moderna institutionen, se Bibliotheca Alexandrina.. Biblioteket i Alexandria var under antiken det största biblioteket i världen och gjorde Alexandria till ett ledande lärdomscentrum. (At first, Egyptians were probably the plurality of residents, while the Jewish community remained small. There, Arianism came to prominence, and there also Athanasius opposed Arianism and the pagan reaction against Christianity, experiencing success against both and continuing the Patriarch of Alexandria's major influence on Christianity into the next two centuries. European merchants in their turn sold wood, furs, cloth, and slaves in Alexandria. Alexandria was also home to the largest Jewish community in the ancient world. "Ultimately, the monument gave rise to numerous allegorical interpretations where it stood as the axis of the planet, the central point around which the whole universe was ordered. Behind it were five villages scattered along the strip between Lake Mareotis and the sea, according to the Romance of Alexander. In July 1882 the city was the site of the first battle of the Anglo-Egyptian War, when it was bombarded and occupied by British naval forces. Alexandria was intended to supersede the older Greek colony of Naucratis as a Hellenistic centre in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. This was one of the chief reasons that induced Octavian to place it directly under imperial power. "I suspect that despite their lack of civic status, Egyptians were presumably more numerous than any other group. Large sections of the city were damaged in the battle, or destroyed in subsequent fires. Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recovered it a few years later, in 641 the Arabs, under the general Amr ibn al-As during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, captured it decisively after a siege that lasted fourteen months. Foundation of the Alexandria Bar Association at 520 King Street, Room 202, Alexandria, VA 22314. We hope to spread our mission and programs to other nature centers in Michigan and beyond. François de Polignac, "The shadow of Alexander"; in Jacob & de Polignac (1992/2000); pp. The various tariffs imposed upon this trade generated immense sums that were essential to the fiscal health of the Mamluk state. The baths and theater were built in the fourth century and the smaller buildings constructed around them, suggesting a sort of urban renewal occurring in the wake of Diocletian.[20]. The typical grant award is up to $5,000, but larger awards have been bestowed to projects judged to be of high need or merit. Alexandria, Louisiana. At the same time, the city could enjoy a fresh water supply by means of a canal from the Nile. Mayors of Alexandria (since the implementation of the local-government act of 1960):[28]. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC and was besieged in the city by Cleopatra's brother and rival. Company Description. These processions were used to shout Greek superiority over any non-Greeks that were watching, thereby widening the divide between cultures.[13]. Jews occupied two of the city's five quarters and worshipped at synagogues. It formed an emirate of the Ayyubid Empire, where Saladin's elder brother Turan Shah was granted a sinecure to keep him from the front lines of the crusades. The Greek author Plutarch of Chaeronea, describes the event in section 26.3-10 of his Life of Alexander. The Spirit of Alexandria Foundation supports all of the things important to Alexandria Bennett - the wonder of nature, the quest for knowledge, the potential of life and the beauty and interest in everything around us. Two French savants assessing the population of Alexandria in 1798 estimated 8,000 and 15,000.[25]. Leaving Siwah, Alexander rode north-east to the Egyptian delta where he founded the city that would become Alexandria-Outside-Egypt. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. The Spirit of Alexandria Foundation was created to carry on the legacy of Alexandria Bennett, a little girl whose passion for nature and generosity was evident to everyone around her. Demographic details of how Alexandria rose quickly to its great size remain unknown.[5]. The latter was recently rediscovered under water. Strabo lists Alexandria, with Tarsus and Athens, among the learned cities of the world, observing also that Alexandria both admits foreign scholars and sends its natives abroad for further education. "The true extent of our ignorance about the most fundamental demographic features of Alexandria is well brought out by Fraser's massive tomes on the history of the city under the Ptolemies. "[11] There were ostentatious religious processions in the streets that displayed the wealth and power of the Ptolemies, but also celebrated and affirmed Greekness. As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century, followed by a fast decline in population and splendor. Through this foundation, it is her family and friends mission to help children experience nature and all its wonderment. [1] Yet, before that, there were some big port cities just east of Alexandria, at the western edge of what is now Abu Qir Bay. The Footnotes tell me that Curtius, Diodorus and Justin ‘follow the tradition of Aristobulus… in placing the foundation of … Monumental buildings were erected in Alexandria through the third century BC. Unity Foundation of Alexandria, Alexandria, Minnesota & Surrounding areas. Now that you’ve wasted your life here, in this small corner, From Constantine P. Cavafy, "The City" (1910), translated by Edmund Keeley, Alexandria was the home of the ethnically Greek poet Constantine P. Cavafy. We’ve no way of knowing to what extent the Greek population penetrated into the hinterland, although we do know that Egypt was divided into regions known as nomes each with its own capital. Once among the greatest cities of the Mediterranean world and a center of Hellenic scholarship and science, Alexandria was the capital of Egypt from its founding by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE until its surrender to Arab forces in 642 CE. Plutarch on the beginning of Alexander's reign, Plutarch on Alexander and the wife of Darius. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Venice has eliminated the jurisdiction and its Alexandrian warehouse became the center of the distribution of spices to the Portuguese Cape route to open in 1498, which marks the commercial decline, worsened by the Turkish invasion. All content copyright © 1995–2021 Livius.org. in the same neighborhoods, turn gray in these same houses. On the mainland, life seemed to have centered in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. [31][32][33], For the history of the city of Alexandria in Virginia, United States, see. Walter Scheidel, "Creating a Metropolis: A Comparative Demographic Perspective"; in Harris & Ruffini (2004), p. 23. The current city is the Republic of Egypt's leading port, a commercial, tourism and transportation center, and the heart of a major industrial area where refined petroleum, asphalt, cotton textiles, processed food, paper, plastics and styrofoam are produced. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. It comes from The Life of Alexander of Macedon (Longmans, Green and Co. 1955) by an unknown author named Pseudo-Callisthenes. The Alexandria Hospital Foundation The Alexandria Hospital Foundation Overview. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, Mediterranean's 'horror' tsunami may strike again, "Inside That Black Sarcophagus in Egypt? Charitable Causes. The remains found at this site, which are dated circa the fourth to seventh centuries AD, include workshops, storefronts, houses, a theater, a public bath, and lecture halls, as well as Coptic frescoes. By Jeremy McInerney, PhD, University of Pennsylvania According to the myth of Alexandria’s construction, Alexander the Great himself was responsible for the city’s foundation. Ancient accounts are extremely numerous and varied, and much influenced by subsequent developments. [9], The early Ptolemies were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian. 594 likes. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. The Lighthouse was destroyed by earthquakes in the 14th century,[22] and by 1700 the city was just a small town amidst the ruins. 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